Camphor Preparation

1. Concentrated Camphor Water. B.P
Camphor 4 g.
Alcohol (90%) 60 ml.
Water to 100 ml
1 part is equivalent to 40 parts of camphor water. Dose: 0-3 to 1 ml. (5 to 15 minims).

2. Camphor Water (B.P.).
Camphor 1 in 1000 of water.
60 minims of spirit of camphor added to 12 fi. oz. of water gives a solution of approximately the same strength. Dose: 15 to 30 ml. (½ to 1 ft. oz.). U.S.N.F. specifies a saturated solution.

3. Aqua Camphorae (U. S. P.)—Camphor Water.
Camphor 8 Gm.
Alcohol 5 Cc.
precipitated calcium phosphate, 5 Gm.
distilled water, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 Cc.
Triturate the camphor with the alcohol and precipitated calcium phosphate, then with the water gradually added, and filter"—(U. S. P.).
The first trituration with alcohol, by destroying the tenacity with which the particles of camphor adhere together, renders it more readily pulverizable; the second trituration with the calcium salt subdivides it still more finely, so that the water can more readily act upon it, and produce the desired medicated water. The filtration removes the calcium phosphate and excess of camphor from the solution. Ice-cold water will dissolve more camphor than water at the ordinary temperature.

4. Camphorated Syrup of Opium( B.P)
Camphor 46 mg.
anise oil 0.04ml.
benzoic acid 63 mg.
glacial acetic acid 575 ml.
tincture of opium 67 ml.
vinegar of ipecacuanha 25 ml.
vinegar of squill 25 ml.
sucrose 70 g.
solution of burnt sugar 62 ml.
water to 100 ml.
Dose: 2 to 4 ml. (30 to 60 minims).

5. Spirit of Camphor (B.P.C., Ind. P., U.S.N.F.).
Camphor 10% w/v in alcohol (90%).
Dose: 0-3 to 2 ml. (5 to 30 minims).

6. Camphor Elixir.
Spirit of camphor 10
syrup 5
water 1
It mixes and diffuses well in water. Dose: 2 to 4 ml. (30 to 60 minims).

7. Lotion Ammoniacale Camphree
Spirit of camphor (10%) 10
sodium chloride 60
solution of ammonia 60
water to 1000
It is used as a compress for migraine and rheumatism, and for contusions.

8. Ammoniated Liniment of Camphor (B.P.).
Camphor 12-5% w/v
strong solution of ammonia 25% v/v
lavender oil 0-5% v/v
alcohol (90%).
Store in well-closed glass-stoppered bottles.



Camphor - Cinnamonum camphora

Color&Appearance: Camphor is White, translucent masses, of a tough consistence and a crystalline structure, readily pulverizable in the presence of a little alcohol, ether, or chloroform.

Odor: having a penetrating, characteristic odor, and a pungently aromatic taste.

Specific Gravity : Specific gravity: 0.995 at 15° C.

Solubility: Very sparingly soluble in water, but readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, benzin, and in fixed and volatile oils. When camphor is triturated, in about molecular proportions, with menthol, thymol, phenol, or chloral hydrate, liquefaction ensues. It melts at 175° C. (347° F.), boils at 204° C. (399.2° F.), and is inflammable, burning with a luminous, smoky flame.

Chemical Components : Camphors are products of oxidation of the group of hydrocarbons, known as terpenes. cymol (cymene) (C10H14), having the graphic formula C6H4.(CH3).(C3H7). 'camphor may be converted into cymol by distillation with zinc chloride, or with phosphoric anhydride. On the other hand, camphor may be obtained (in small amounts) by the oxidation of terpenes.

Precautions : Camphor is present in several over-the-counter compounds of questionable use and therefore may be ingested by small children. Because seizures may follow ingestion of certain amounts, appropriate treatment is needed, including the use of anticonvulsants.

Therapeutic properties: In large doses camphor is a narcotic and irritant; in small ones, sedative, anodyne, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, and anthelmintic. Very small doses stimulate and large doses depress. Large doses cause oesophageal and gastric pain, vomiting, slow and enfeebled and subsequently intermittent pulse, dizziness, drowsiness, dimness of sight, pallid, cold skin, muscular weakness, cyanosis, spasms, muscular rigidity, and convulsions.

Uses: Camphor is used in medicine internally for its calming influence in hysteria, nervousness and neuralgia, and for serious diarrhoea, and externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatisms, sprains bronchitis, and in inflammatory conditions, and sometimes in conjunction with menthol and phenol for heart failure; it is often given hypodermically, 3 to 5 grains dissolved in 20 to 30 minims of sterile Olive oil - the effect will last about two hours. In nervous diseases it may be given in substance or in capsules or in spirit; dose 2 to 5 grains. Its great value is in colds, chills, and in all inflammatory complaints; it relieves irritation of the sexual organs.

Storage: Camphor kept in umber tightly closed glass bottle .


Peppermint Preparation

1. Aqua Menthae Piperitae (U. S. P.)—Peppermint Water
Oil of peppermint 2 ml
precipitated calcium phosphate 4 Gm.
distilled water, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 ml
Triturate the oil of peppermint with the precipitated calcium phosphate, add the distilled water gradually, under constant trituration, and filter"—(U. S. P.).
Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.:
Peppermint water is used as an antispasmodic and carminative, in flatulence and flatulent colic, to allay nausea and vomiting, and as a gentle aromatic stimulant. The dose is from 4 fluid drachms to 2 fluid ounces, 3 or 4, or more times a day.

2. Spiritus Menthae Piperitae (U. S. P.)—Spirit of Peppermint
Oil of peppermint 100 ml
peppermint, bruised, 10 Gm
alcohol, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 ml
Dissolve the oil of peppermint in nine hundred ml of alcohol, add the peppermint, and macerate for 24 hours. Then filter through paper, and add, through the filter, enough alcohol to make the spirit measure 1000 ml -(U. S. P.). The purpose of adding peppermint is to give the preparation a green color.
Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage:
Tincture of oil of peppermint, more commonly known as essence of peppermint, is carminative and antispasmodic. It may be used in nausea, colic, flatulency, cramp, or griping of the bowels, etc. The dose is from 10 to 30 drops, on sugar or in sweetened water.

3. Trochisci Menthae Piperitae (U. S. P.)—Troches of Peppermint
Oil of peppermint 1 ml
sugar, in fine powder 80 Gm.
mucilage of tragacanth, a sufficient quantity to make 100 troches.
Rub the oil of peppermint and the sugar together until they are thoroughly mixed; then, with mucilage of tragacanth, form a mass, to be divided into 100 troches "—(U. S. P.).
Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage:
These are carminative and antispasmodic, and will be found useful in sick stomach, slight pains in the stomach or bowels, flatulency, and griping from purgative medicines. If eaten too freely, they cause derangement of the stomach. Dose, 1 to 5 or more troches.

Peppermint oil

Peppermint - Mentha piperita

Peppermint oil is extracted from Mentha piperita of the Labiatae family and is also known as brandy mint and balm mint.

Color&Appearance:Slightly yellow clear liquid.

Odor:Having a characteristic odor of mentha avensis peppermint oil.

Specific Gravity(20/20℃):0.888-0.908

solubility: 1 volume soluble in 3.5 volumes of 70% alcohol forming a clear solution.

Total Menthol Content:50.0% Minimum

Chemical ComponentsThe activities of Peppermint are due primarily to its volatile oil, which exists in the leaves and flowering tops. Menthol, considered one of the main active components of Peppermint, also lends to it that “cooling” sensation. Menthol is a very volatile component of the oil - when pure. Natural Peppermint oil contains varying percentages of several different components which provide a full flavor and complexity, including menthol esters, and menthone, as well as flavanoids and tannins.

The chemical components of peppermint oil are menthol, menthone, 1,8-cineole, methyl acetate, methofuran, isomenthone, limonene, b-pinene, a-pinene, germacrene-d, trans-sabinene hydrate and pulegone.

Peppermint oil is non-toxic and non-irritant in low dilutions, but sensitization may be a problem due to the menthol content.
It can cause irritation to the skin and mucus membranes and should be kept well away from the eyes. It should be avoided during pregnancy and should not be used on children under seven.
Therapeutic properties
The therapeutic properties of peppermint oil are analgesic, anesthetic, antiseptic, antigalactagogue, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, cordial, decongestant, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hepatic, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific, vasoconstrictor and vermifuge.

Peppermint oil is excellent for mental fatigue and depression, refreshing the spirit and stimulating mental agility and improving concentration. It helps for apathy, shock, headache, migraine, nervous stress, vertigo and faintness and in general respiratory disorders, as well as dry coughs, sinus congestion, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and cholera.
For the digestive system, peppermint oil is effective for a range of ailments, as it stimulates the gall bladder and the secretion of bile. It is used for colic, cramps, dyspepsia, spastic colon, flatulence and nausea and can relieve pain in cases of toothache, aching feet, rheumatism, neuralgia, muscular pains and painful periods.
On the skin, peppermint oil is used to relieve skin irritation and itchiness and also helps to reduce skin redness, where inflammation is present. It is used for dermatitis, acne, ringworm, scabies and pruritus and also relieves itching, sunburn and inflammation of the skin, while at the same time having a cooling action.

Storage:To store in closed containers and keep in a dry place and avoid sunshine & rain.